For a brief overview for formatting your paper using APA style, watch this video from Excelsior College Online Writing Lab
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author:
First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015)
Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Separate each work with semi-colons
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
One author: (Field, 2005)
Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three or more authors: (Tremblay et al., 2010)
Include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)
Author Last, Author First Initial. (Publication Year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Bailey, T.R., Smith-Jaggars, S., & Jenkins, D. (2015). Redesigning America's community colleges: A clearer path to success. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue #, if available), pp-pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxx
Hatch, D.K. (2017). The structure of student engagement in community college student success programs: A qualitative activity systems analysis. AERA Open, 3(4), 1-14. doi: 10.1177/2332858417732744
Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp.-pp. (if print) Retrieved from URL (if online)
Porter, E. (2019, July 16). Why midsize cities struggle to catch up to superstar cities. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/16/business/economy/winston-salem-convergence.html
Author, A.A. (Year, Month). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Vol.(Issue), pp.-pp. (if print). Retrieved from URL (if online)
Binelli, M. (2017, May). The fire last time. The New Republic, 248(5). Retrieved from https://newrepublic.com/article/141701/fire-last-time-detroit-stress-police-squad-terrorized-black-community
Author, A.A. (if available) (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Retrieved from URL
Ramsayer, K. (2019, August 28). Landsat illustrates five decades of change to Greenland glaciers. Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2908/landsat-illustrates-five-decades-of-change-to-greenland-glaciers/
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